Can Mongolia be considered the last nomadic people in the world?
In the rich history of Mongolia over 2000 years, the land was always belonging to the state and the kings used to guarantee the security of the land. Still, now Mongolian people consider livestock to be private and land to be collective property. In the early 1980s when democracy came to Mongolia, the most controversial political issue was the privatization of land, especially for the herdsman. Over the past decade, the country has been changing rapidly undergoing economic reforms. Although the new Constitution and general Land Law as well as the Law on Land Payment Fees, Law on the State Protected Areas, Mining Code, etc., have been enacted since 1994, the issue of the land privatization remains unsolved.
Seeing all these sheep, goats, cows, horses, and yaks pasturing freely on a land a lot of tourists wonder how this can be managed. So here, I would like to give a brief understanding of Mongolian livestock husbandry based on the nomadic lifestyle of herders. The country is divided into 21 provinces. Provinces are further divided into small county and the responsibility for land management lies with the small county, government though titles are still held by the Parliament. A small county consists of the smallest formal administrative and territorial unit.