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The true story of Independence of Mongolia

Updated: Dec 9, 2020

96 years ago, on November 26, 1924, Mongolia adopted its first constitution and announced the People's Republic of Mongolia to the world. Mongolia approved its core legal principles and a new political system. With the adoption of the first Constitution, it strengthened socioeconomic achievements and declared all of the land, resources, forests, and animals under the ownership of citizens of Mongolia. This was a huge step towards independence for the small country Mongolia, which is located between two powerful nations. Although only two countries agreed to allow Mongolia to declare the independence, this news was published in the New York Times and it spread around the world. In history its written that Tibet and Tuva were the first countries to accept Mongolia’s independence. Now those two countries are part of China and Russia. The Day of Proclamation was made a public holiday in accordance with the parliamentary resolution made on November 18, 2016.


Mongolia in ancient time: The oldest nomadic tribes and states in Mongolia were recorded in Xinyu in 2000 BC, Guifan, Eifan in 1500 BC, and Fun, Hun, and Quanju Di in 1000-300 BC. They were powerful tribes with large population.

Great Mongolian empire: XI-XII, many aimags of Mongol descent had separate lords, were constantly at war with each other, and were scattered. These tribes were divided into steppe and forest tribes. Temujin was from Khamag Mongol tribe which was outstanding from all the other tribes of Tatars, Kheraites, Naimans, Merkits, Jalyar and Ondug aimags, and in 1189, Temujin united all these tribes.

1206, Genghis khan had managed to unite or subdue all the tribes and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule. This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force. The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuraldai-( it is when a Mongol clan or tribe needed make important political or military decisions, the members gathered in tribal council known as Khuraldai), a council of Mongol chiefs, Chinggis Khaan was acknowledged as KHAAN of the consolidated tribes and took the new title " Genghis Khaan". With the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, the Mongolian ethos was formed the conditions for the development of the Mongolian language, script and culture were created.

After the war campaign of Chinggis Khaan and his successors, Mongolia spread to the East, the the Chienese sea to the east, and Western Europe to the west, becoming powerful empire covering the vast lands of Aisa and Europe. The Mongol Empire became one of the world's trade routes passed through the Mongolian capital, Kharakhorum, and the envoys of King Louis of France, the princes of Georgia and Armenia, Russian monarchs, Chinese officials, and foreign tourists and travelers attracted.

Yuan Dynasty: When the last emperor of the Mongol Empire, Mongke, ascended to heaven in 1257, the Mongol Empire became part of the Golden Horde, which included the Russian Kipchak, the Ilkhanate, which occupied Iran and Irak, Chaghadai, which included East Turkstan and Uzbekistan, and became the Yuan dynasty, which included China and Mongolia. Although the Mongol wars wreaked havoc on many Mongolian tribes around the world conquered lands and settlements, they expanded relations between Asia and Europe and connected East and West as never before.

Post Yuan dynasty: In 1368, after Ming Dynasty overthrow of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, Mongolian emperor returned to Mongolia from Beijing. Although Mongol feudalism flourished in the XIV-XVII centuries, it was politically fragmented and divided in to Eastern Mongolia (Oirat). At the end of the 16 th century Mongolia was divided into Inner Mongolia йиб Khalkha Mongolia. At that time, the Mongols were at war with each other, and at one time Oirat Mongol ruled Eastern Mongol. However, the Eastern Mongols were dominant.

The period of Manchu rule: At the beginning of the 17 th century, the nomadic Manchus living in the Amur River basin became stronger, established the Quing Dynasty, and began a political conquest of neighboring China and Mongolia. At that time, Ligden khaan, Tsogt khun taij of Khalkha, Galdan Boshgit of Oirat, fought actively against the Manchu invadres, but Manshu exploited that inability unification of Mongol kings. Thus, Manchu ruled Inner Mongolia in 1630, Oiart in 1758. At that time, the Manchus had been seizing Mongolia from world civilization for hundred years.

Mongolia at the time of its Declaration of Independence: In the twentieth century, the Mongols saw renaissance movement to liberate themselves and in 1911, Manchu colony dominance collapsed and regained its independence in the form of monarchy that combined religion and state. Eventually, all Mongolians tried to unite, but the aggressive policy of the Tsarist Russia and the Chinese Middle Kingdom did not allow it happen.

In 1919, the Middle Kingdom of China attempted to destroy Mongolia's independence by force of arms. For this time, the idea of saving the nation was reviving among Mongolians.

The 1911 revolution brought the Bogd Khan to the throne and established a combination of religion and state, and the 1921 revolution also brought the Bogd Khaan to the throne.

But Bogd khaan’s throne was only symbolic or religious cases has made it possible to separate religion from state affairs and established more democratic governance.

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