Who is the winner of geopolitics?
“You are from Mongolia? So, do you speak Chinese?
We do not speak Chinese in actual Mongolia! We do speak Mongolian. But inner Mongolians speak in Chinese as well as Mongolian.
Oh! is there another Mongolia too?
This is a common misconception about Mongolia and often asked questions when I travel abroad. The capital city of actual Mongolia where we live is “ULAANBAATAR”, with 3.4 million people and an area of 1.56 square kilometers.
Inner Mongolia is a province in China with a population of around 24 million and an area of 1.8 square kilometers, the majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a large Mongol minority. The capital city of inner Mongolia is “HUH HOT”.
It is a frequently asked question how come inner and outer Mongolia got divided. Historically, Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia were separated in the 17th century. In 1636, 49 counties of Inner Mongolia became part of the Manchu state.
Back then, Manchu declared that they had the Kublai khaan’s seal and that he had the right to rule not only Mongolia but also China. However, Khalkha and Oirat people remained independent.
Due to the Khalkh-Oirat war, the Khalkhs, led by Zanabazar, (a religious leader, who is credited with launching Mongolia's seventeenth-century cultural renaissance) were driven out by Oirat, but in 1696 they reached an agreement in Dolonnuur and became vassals of the Manchus.
When Zunghar attacked the Khalkha Mongols of outer Mongolia in 1688, Qing armies intervened on behalf of the Khalkhas and defeated the Zunghars. As a result, in 1691, the Qing convened an assembly of Khalkha (i., e outer Mongolian) princes at Dolonnuur in Inner Mongolia and orchestrated the official submission of outer Mongolia to Manchu Qing hegemony. The conference resolved the long-running struggle between the Khalkha princes and the Khalkha-Oirats in favor of the Manchus.
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia
From this period, the name Inner Mongolia. Chinese called "nei mongu" and Outer Mongolia or "Wei mongu". It means "our Mongolian" and "not our Mongolian". There is a stark difference between legal, current, and current international treaties, which are subject to, treaty and occupation. It took the Manchu about a century to add northern, or “Outer,” Mongolia to their empire, resulting in two Mongolia markedly different from each other, Inner Mongolia is much more closely integrated with China.
Difference between Zunghar Khanate or Oirat people and Khalkha Mongols
During the Chinggis khaan, there were 400.000 Mongolia had 400.000 population of Chinggis khaan time, after the Yuan Dynasty collapsed 30.000 baruun Mongols, 40.000 Oirats remained.
Of the 40,000 who lived during the reign of Genghis Khan, the Yuan Dynasty was followed by three right-wing and three left-wing tribes, as well as four Oirat tribes.
Who is Oirat or Dzungar Khanate?
After the fall of the Yuan dynasty, Oirat and Eastern Mongols had developed separate identities to the point where Oirats called themselves "Four Oirats" while they used the term "Mongols" for those under the Khagans in the east. Oirat people didn’t want to be ruled by Khalkha Mongols. They had 400 years of long conflict in between and it escalate until it came under the control of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. In most cases, the Oirats attacked eastern Mongolia, and the eastern Mongols repulsed and drove them away. The main reason is the war for pastures.
The Dzungar Khanate was an Inner Asian khanate of Oirat Mongol origin. At its greatest extent, it covered an area from southern Siberia in the north to present-day Kyrgyzstan in the south, and from the Great Wall of China in the east to present-day Kazakhstan in the west. The core of the Dzungar Khanate is today part of northern Xinjiang, also called Dzungaria.
About 1620 the western Mongols, known as the Oirats, united in Dzungaria. In 1678, Galdan received from the Dalai Lama the title of Boshogtu Khan, making the Dzungars the leading tribe within the Oirats. The Dzungar rulers used the title of Taiji, which translates into English as "crown prince". Between 1680 and 1688, the Dzungars conquered the Tarim Basin, which is now southern Xinjiang, and defeated the Khalkha Mongols to the east. In 1696, Galdan was defeated by the Qing dynasty and lost Outer Mongolia. (The Manchu Qing Dynasty always used Mongols, which is a fulfillment of the Dolonnur agreement. (in1961 Khalkha Mongol followed Manchuin in Dolonnur). King Kansi (3rd emperor of the Qing dynasty) led the invasion of Khalkha, and in the battle to defeat Galdan -(was a Dzungar-Oirat Khan of the Dzungar Khanate), his army consisted of Mongols. When the Oirat were defeated, the Mongols, especially the Huh Nuur Durvuds, were the army. Mongolia was divided, and the Khalkha Mongols and Oirat Mongols waged wars against each other. After ending Khalkha Mongols won, these two became Outer Mongolia.)
In 1717 the Dzungars conquered Tibet but were driven out a year later by the Qing. In 1755, Qing China took advantage of a Dzungar civil war to conquer Dzungaria and destroyed the Dzungars as a people. The destruction of the Dzungars led to the Qing conquest of Mongolia, and Tibet, and the creation of Xinjiang as a political-administrative unit.
Who is Manchu?
The nomads of the Jurchen dynasty established their own state long ago in the 7th century, at that time it was called the Bohai state. The Bohai state was oppressed by the Chinese (Khitans), but they established Altan uls-(Golden state) in the 9th century, and after 100 years conquered by the Mongols. It was revived for the third time in the 16th century and was renamed the Golden Kingdom (Jin Chao in Chinese). Ambagai, the son of Nurhach, (he was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
When the Manchus conquered Beijing in 1644 and ruled all of China, the Manchu, Mongol, Han Chinese, and Chinese multi-ethnic empire became known as the Qing, or Da Qing Go in Chinese. In this multi-ethnic country, two ethnic groups, the Manchus and the Mongols, dominated exclusive rights. The area was a special zone isolated from China, the population is not only tax-free, but its officials are paid well, and government employees are highly paid and less responsible. Only these two nations have the right to be promoted to the highest ranks. The law prohibits marriage with other nationalities, even though the state encourages intermarriage and provides titles and financial support. Therefore, Manchus started using diplomatic tactics with Mongol khans such as encouraging inter-marriages from the very beginning. One example, in Terelj National Park, 70km from Ulaanbaatar city, there is a historical site called Princess Temple which used to be the residence of a Manchu princess married to a Mongolian noble. (Discover Gorkhi Terelj National Park) For many years, the Chinese and Manchus took turns helping Oirats, and Khalkh Mongols to stir up and exhaust the Mongols in between. Manchus also used subtle political tactics to convert Mongol nobles to their side by bestowing them with various titles and promising them different rewards. Their tactics were not always neat and diplomatic, facts reveal to us that they utilized a significant dose of threat and torture to make Mongols obey their orders, too.
Difference between Manchu and China
(The Manchus were the last imperial rulers of China and have contributed significant parts of their culture to the national culture, yet they have also been forced to blend in over the years).
The nomadic Manchus feared the large Chinese population. Therefore, Manchus undertook to protect the interests of Mongolians from the Chinese. Mongols that are good at battle, got the responsibility of helping in case of battling to protect the Manchu king.
Under the Manchu law, which forbade manual labor and only held senior positions, almost all minority Manchus became chiefs, but they accounted for only 16 percent of the traditional Chinese state apparatus.
Relation between Manchu and Mongol
Colonization means large numbers of people settling in the occupied territories, but during the Manchu Qing Dynasty, the Mongols rarely saw the Manchus. There are almost no Manchus to work in the territory of cold Mongolian weather. When they come for an assignment the farthest, they come to Khaalgan and Hohhot which are located in the northern part of China, and high-position representatives come to the north rarely. Therefore, especially in Outer Mongolia, Mongolians have performed public service, envoys, and military leadership.
The Manchu Qing Dynasty always used Mongols, which is a fulfillment of the Dolonnur agreement. (in1961 Khalkha Mongol followed Manchuin in Dolonnur). King Kansi led the invasion of Khalkha, and in the battle to defeat Galdan, his army consisted of Mongols. When the Oirat were defeated, the Mongols, especially the Huh Nuur Durvuds, were the army. Mongolia was divided, and the Khalkha Mongols and Oirat Mongols waged wars against each other. After ending Khalkha Mongols won, these two became Outer Mongolia.
Mongolian military was the two of three largest quarters among the army and they were in charge of during the border defeating war from Russia happened in Kharmor, Uliastai, and Iltarvagatai.
Also, during the Drug War, the Taiping and Boxing Revolts, and later the Battle of Beijing, the Mongols led a committee to defend the Manchu dynasty.
After that, in 1762, the Manchu government passed a law for Mongolia which was published in 11 books called “Mongolian Tsaaz” which means “Mongol Law”.
In addition to ratifying the Dolonnuur Treaty, there are many additional provisions to separate Outer Mongolia from the Chinese and not confuse its population.
In 1907, China decided to become a constitutional kingdom and repealed its previous laws about Mongolia. Because of that number of Chinese came to Mongolia. In addition, Mongolian feudal lords, who did not pay taxes and received only gifts from the Manchu king, were forced to relinquish their former privileges. For this reason, a movement to break away from the Manchu dynasty and establish an independent state arose among the feudal lords.
Mongolia declared themselves both to be free from Manchu rule and separate from China
The independence movement was led by the Bogd. There was no other way to lead. The most powerful factor uniting the Mongols was the Yellow Religion. Although there were rumors that the descendants of Genghis Khan should come to the throne of independent Mongolia, it was dangerous to divide all the Mongols and even the four Khalkha aimags. When the revolt against the Manchu Qing Dynasty broke out in October 1911, foreign Mongols sent a letter to the Manchu Qing King asking him to send troops under the Dolonnuur Treaty, proving that it was a vassal treaty between Outer Mongolia and the Manchu Khan. In fact, as early as 1636, when the Inner Mongols reached a vassal agreement with the Manchus, Ambagai Setsen Khan promised, "If the Manchu state ever collapses, the Mongols have the right to separate and re-establish their independent state."
When the revolt against the Manchu Qing Dynasty in Xinhai in October 1911, the outer Mongols sent a letter to the Manchu Qing King asking him to send troops under the Dolonnuur Treaty, proving that it was a vassal treaty between Outer Mongolia and the Manchu Khan. In fact, as early as 1636, when the Inner Mongols reached a vassal agreement with the Manchus, Ambagai Setsen Khan promised, "If the Manchu state ever collapses, the Mongols have the right to separate and re-establish their independent state."
The Qinghai revolution is interpreted today in terms of the only way to oppose the monarchy and establish a republic. However, the leader of the revolution at the time, Sun Yat-sen, stated that his main goal was to liberate China from foreign Manchu oppression.
Clarification of long and confusing history
Explanations about Manchu oppression and Chinese colonization were a big reason for the Mongols to be a part of China for 220 years. This long and confusing history proves and provides a historical guarantee of nonsense about Mongolia being a part of China.
The Mongolian state, founded in 1911, was on the one hand a theocratic monarchy, but on the other hand, it created a modern state system. Originating from Napoleon, this European system of government was common throughout Europe and North and South America at the time and has spread to many Asian countries. It has government ministries, a cabinet, and so on. Western-style school and hospital forms emerged at that time. In a word, not everything dates back to 1921.
Compared to its two neighbors, Mongolia today is more democratic, open, and free.