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31th anniversary of the pro-democracy rally in Mongolia

Updated: Dec 11, 2020

By the 1980s Mongolia had become a totally transformed society.

Mongolia was affected by the results of political reforms that happened in Central and Eastern Europe, such as the reorganization of the USSR in 1986, the peaceful revolution in Prague in late 1989, the demolition of the Berlin Wall by two Germans, and the execution of state officials in Bucharest. Change came from the West and when perestroika was introduced in the Soviet Union, the ripples swept into Mongolia.


At that time, students of the University of Mongolia started publishing articles about democracy and established various political groups. In November, 1989 youth federation organized the conference and criticized the social situation and announced establishment of the Mongolian Democratic Union, for reform. Reform process deepened in Mongolia, in the fall of 1989, the drivers of the milk truck depot went on strike for two days, demanding an increase in wages, the first strike in the history.


Eventually, newspapers began to criticize the old system, students published leaflets, held student rallies on environmental issues, formed various coalitions and associations, and joined democratic movements to criticize the old social system, the level of development, and everything that had been created in the past.


On December 10, 1989, International Human Rights Day, a modest gathering of a few people at the Youth Cultural Center officially announced the formation of the Mongolian Democratic Union, which later moved to Sukhbaatar Square and turned in to a demonstarion for hundreds of young people.

The protesters did not use force to disperse the then government or security forces, as they were the children of the ruling intelligentsia themselves, well-educated young men in their 20s and 30s.


December 11 and 12, 1989 at the seventh plenary of the MPRP Congress, the ruling party expressed its support for the reforms demanded by the protesters.

When the leaders of the Mongolian Democratic Union submitted their demands to the authorities on December 17, 1989, the authorities accepted the demands and offered a gradual five-year reform, but the young revolutionaries refused to allow long-delays reforms. The leader of the movement was a young man named Zorig Sanjaasuren, who received his primary and secondary education in Mongolia and joined a group of students who called for an end to the communist dictatorship while studying at Moscow University.


A large rally was held on January 21, 1990, demanding the acceleration of reforms, and demonstrated how the Mongolian Democratic Union has expanded in the space of a month from December 10 to the present day. On December 10, 1989, International Human Rights Day, a modest gathering of a few people at the Youth Cultural Center officially announced the formation of the Mongolian Democratic Union, which later moved to Sukhbaatar Square and turned into a demonstration for hundreds of young people. lies on environmental issues, formed various coalitions and associations and joined democratic movements to criticize the old social system, the level of development, and everything that had been created in the past.


The political hunger strike ended on March 29, 1990, when the General Secretary of the MPRP Central Committee, J. Batmunkh, announced the resignation of the entire Politburo of the MPRP Central Committee.

In contrast to other communist states of the time, Mongolia’s democratic revolution was remarkably peaceful and began with a series of popular demonstrations in late 1989 and early 1990. In a heady time frequently recalled by Mongolians today, mass demonstrations filled Ulaanbaatar’s Suhbaatar Square demanding an end to one-party rule and free elections. Opposition parties were formed and hunger strikes called.

In the meantime, Soviet specialists and Soviet troops living and working in Mongolia returned, some of the supplies from the Soviet Union came to a standstill, and a difficult time for Mongolia to move forward on its own came released on.


Between 1990 and 2000, cross-border trade between Mongolia, China, Russia, and other former socialist countries flourished, with hundreds of private trade and service organizations established, and a new type of banking system established, contributing to the country's economic development. has arrived.

Housing privatization began in 1997, land privatization in 2003, and the mining sector began to develop successfully in 1997. Joint ventures with companies from Canada, Russia, China, Germany, and France have been established, and heavy industry is developing in Mongolia.

A large rally was held on January 21, 1990, demanding the acceleration of reforms, and demonstrated how the Mongolian Democratic Union has expanded in the space of a month from December 10 to the present day.


On December 10, 1989, International Human Rights Day, a modest gathering of a few people at the Youth Cultural Center officially announced the formation of the Mongolian Democratic Union, which later moved to Sukhbaatar Square and turned into a demonstration for hundreds of young people. lies on environmental issues formed various coalitions and associations and joined democratic movements to criticize the old social system, the level of development, and everything that had been created in the past.


At that time, students of the University of Mongolia started publishing articles about democracy and established various political groups. In November 1989 youth federation organized the conference and criticized the social situation and announced the establishment of the Mongolian Democratic Union, for reform. m.



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